**
Time passes. So
do we. Be prepared. Tell the people you care about that you care
about them.**

**
**

#
PHYSICS
TIMELINE

More Busy People

Source:
Various

**-585: Thales of Miletus, prediction
of an eclipse**

**-580: Thales of Miletus, birth of scientific thought**

-580: Thales of Miletus, water as the basic element

-580: Thales of Miletus, magnets and attraction to rubbed amber

-560: Thales of Miletus, first cosmologies

-550: Anaximenes, flat Earth

-525: Pythagoras, understanding the world and mathematics

-520: Anaximander, Earth surface is curved (cylinder)

-515: Parmenides, paradoxes of change and motion

-500: Pythagoreans, Earth is a sphere

-480: Oenopides, finds angle of Earth's tilt to ecliptic

-480: Protagoras, reality comes from the senses

-480: Heraclitus, fire as primary substance

-480: Heraclitus, change is the essence of being

-475: Parmenides, Earth is a sphere

-470: Anaxagoras, materials are made of "seeds" (atoms)

-470: Anaxagoras, sun, moon and stars are made of same material as
Earth

-470: Anaxagoras, sun as a hot glowing rock

-460: Eudoxus, Celestial spheres

-460: Empedocles, Four elements: Earth, Air, Fire and Water

-455: Philolaus, Earth Rotates

-450: Zeno, paradoxes of discrete or continuous space and time

-445: Leucippus, indivisble atoms

-425: Democritus, Atomic theory

-390: Plato, theory of knowledge

-390: Plato, ether as a fifth element

-385: Democritus, Milky Way is composed of many stars

-370: Aristotle, Free falling bodies accelerate but heavier bodies
fall faster

-360: Heracleides, Venus and Mercury orbit the sun

-352: Chinese, recorded observation of a supernova

-350: Heracleides, Rotation of the Earth

-340: Aristotle, Earth is a sphere

-340: Aristotle, Space is continuous and always filled with matter

-335: Kiddinu, precession of equinoxes

-335: Strato, experiments with falling bodies and levers

-330: Aristotle, physics and metaphysics

-330: Aristotle, geocentric cosmology

-325: Pytheas, tides are caused by moon

-306: Epicurus, support for atomic theory

-295: Euclid, elements of mathematics

-265: Zou Yan, five elements: water, metal, wood, fire and earth

-260: Aristarchus of Samos, ratio of Earth-Sun distance to
Earth-Moon distance from angle at half moon

-260: Aristarchus of Samos, distance and size of moon from Earth's
shadow during lunar eclipse

-260: Aristarchus of Samos, heliocentric cosmology

-250: Chinese, free bodies move at constant velocity

-240: Archimedes, Principle of levers and compound pulley

-240: Archimedes, Archimedes' principle of hydrostatics

-235: Eratosthenes, Measurement of Earth's circumference

-190: Seleucus, further support for heliocentric theory

-170: Chinese, record of sun spots

-150: Hipparchus, precession of the equinoxes

-130: Hipparchus, size of moon from parallax of eclipse

83: Chinese, loadstone compass

100: Bhaskara, diameter of the Sun

100: Hero of Alexandria, expansion of air with heat

100: Hero of Alexandria, laws of light reflection

130: Ptolemy, geocentric cosmology of epicycles

180: Egypt, alchemy

550: Johannas Philoponus, impetus keeps a body moving

721: Abu Hayyan, preparation of chemicals such as nitric acid

890: Al-Razi, atomic of matter and space

890: Al-Razi, Andromeda galaxy

1000: Ali Al-hazen, reflection, refraction and lenses

1000: Ali Al-hazen, pinhole camera to demonstrate that light travels
in straight lines to the eye

1054: China and Arabia Supernova of Crab Nebula recorded

1121: Al-khazini gravity acts towards centre of Earth

1155: Bhaskara first description of a perpetual motion machine

1225: Jordanus Nemorarius, mechanics of lever and composition of
motion

1250: Albertus Magnus, isolation of arsenic

1260: Roger Bacon, empiricism

1267: Roger Bacon, magnifying lens

1269: Pierre de Maricourt, experiments with magnets and compass

1304: Theodoric of Freibourg, experiments to investigate rainbows

1320: William of Occam, Occam's Razor

1355: Jean Buridan, physics of impetus

1440: Nicolas Cusanus, Earth is in motion

1440: Nicolas Cusanus, infinite universe

1450: Johann Gutenberg, first printing press in Europe

1472: Johannes Regiomontanus, observation of Halley's comet

1480: Leonardo de Vinci, description of parachute

1480: Leonardo de Vinci, compares reflection of light to reflection
of sound waves

1490: Leonardo de Vinci, capillary action

1492: Leonardo de Vinci, foresees flying machines

1494: Leonardo de Vinci, foresees pendulum clock

1514: Nicolaus Copernicus, writes about heliocentric theory but does
not yet publish

1515: Leonardo Da Vinci, progress in mechanics, aerodynamics and
hydraulics

1537: Niccolo Tartaglia, trajectory of a bullet

1551: Girolamo Cardano, studies of falling bodies

1553: Giambattista Benedetti, proposed equality of fall rates

1543: Nicolaus Copernicus, heliocentric theory published

1546: Gerardus Mercator, Magnetic pole of Earth

1572: Tycho Brahe, witnesses a supernova and cites it as evidence
that the heavens are not changeless

1574: Tycho Brahe, Observes that a comet is beyond the moon

1576: Tycho Brahe, constructs a planetary observatory

1576: Thomas Digges, illustration of an infinite universe
surrounding a Copernican solar system

1577: Tycho Brahe, observes that a comet passes through the orbits
of other planets

1581: Galileo Galilei, constancy of period of pendulum

1581: Robert Norman, dip of compass shows that Earth is a magnet

1584: Giordano Bruno, suggests that stars are suns with other
Earth's in orbit

1585: Giovanni Benedetti, impetus theory is better than Aristotle's
physics

1585: Simon Stevin, law of equilibrium

1586: Simon Stevin, pressure in column of liquid

1586: Simon Stevin, verification of equality of fall rates

1589: Galileo Galilei, showed that objects fall at the same rate
independent of mass

1592: Galileo Galilei, suggests that physical laws of the heavens
are the same as those on Earth

1592: Galileo Galilei, primitive thermometer

1593: Johannes Kepler, related planets to platonic solids

1596: David Fabricius, observes a variable star, (Mira Ceta)

1600: Galileo Galilei, study of sound and vibrating strings

1600: William Gilbert, static electricity and magnetism

1604: Johannes Kepler, mirrors, lenses and vision

1604: Galileo Galilei, distance for falling object increases as
square of time

1608: Hans Lippershey, optical telescope

1609: Lippershey and Janssen, the compound microscope

1609: Johannes Kepler, 1st and 2nd laws of planetary motion

1609: Thomas Harriot, maps moon using a telescope

1609: Johannes Kepler, notion of energy

1609: Galileo Galilei, builds a telescope

1610: Galileo Galilei, observes the phases of Venus

1610: Galileo Galilei, observes moons of Jupiter

1610: Galileo Galilei, observes craters on the moon

1610: Galileo Galilei, observes stars in the Milky Way

1610: Galileo Galilei, observes structures around Saturn

1611: Fabricius, Galileo, Harriot, Scheiner, sunspots

1611: Marco de Dominis, explanation of rainbows

1611: Johannes Kepler, principles of the astronomical telescope

1612: Simon Marius, Andromeda galaxy

1612: Galileo Galilei, hydrostatics

1613: Galileo Galilei, principle of inertia

1615: S. de Caus, forces and work

1618: Francesco Grimaldi, interference and diffraction of light

1619: Johannes Kepler, 3rd law of planetary motion

1619: Johannes Kepler, explains why a comets tail points away from
the Sun

1619: Rene Descartes, vision of rationalism

1620: Francis Bacon, the empirical scientific method

1620: Francis Bacon, heat is motion

1620: Jan Baptista van Helmont, introduces the word "gas"

1621: Willebrod Snell, the sine law of refraction

1624: Galileo Galilei, theory of tides

1626: Godfried Wendilin, verification of Kepler's laws for moons of
Jupiter

1630: Cabaeus, attraction and repulsion of electric charges

1631: Pierre Gassendi, observes a transit of Mercury

1632: Galileo Galilei, Galilean relativity

1632: Galileo Galilei, support for Copernicus' heliocentric theory

1632: John Ray, water thermometer

1636: G. Pers de Roberval, gravitational forces are mutual
attraction

1636: Marin Mersenne, speed of sound

1637: Rene Descartes, inertia, mechanistic physics

1637: Rene Descartes, refraction, rainbow and clouds

1638: Galileo Galilei, motion and friction

1639: Jeremiah Horrocks, observes a transit of Venus

1640: Evangelista Torricelli, theory of hydrodynamics

1641: Ferdinand II, sealed thermometer

1642: Blaise Pascal, mechanical calculator

1644: Evangelista Torricelli, mercury barometer and artificial
vacuum

1645: Ismael Boulliau, inverse square law for central force acting
on planets

1648: Blaise Pascal, explains barometer as a result of atmospheric
pressure

1650: Otto von Guericke, demonstration of the power of vacuum using
two large hemispheres and 8 horses

1650: Giovani Riccioli, discovers first binary star

1654: Ferdinand II, sealed thermometer

1655: Christiaan Huygens, rings and moons of Saturn

1657: Christiaan Huygens, pendulum clock

1657: Pierre Fermat, Fermat's principle in optics

1659: Christiaan Huygens, surface features on Mars

1660: Otto von Guericke, electrostatic machine

1660: Robert Boyle, sound will not travel in a vacuum

1661: Robert Boyle, corpuscular theory of matter

1661: Robert Boyle, chemical elements, acids and alkalis

1662: Robert Boyle, Boyle's law for ideal gases relating volume to
pressure

1663: Blaise Pascal, isotropy of pressure

1663: James Gregory, describes a reflecting telescope

1663: Huygens, Wallace and Wren, laws of elastic collisions

1664: Robert Hooke, the great red spot of Jupiter

1664: Rene Descartes, published support for Copernican theory

1665: Isaac Newton, studies the
principles of mechanics and gravity, mass and force

1665: Giovanni Cassini, rotation periods of Jupiter, Mars and Venus

1665: Francesco Grimaldi, his wave theory of light is published

1665: Hooke, Huygens, colours of oil film explained by wave theory
of light and interference

1665: Robert Hooke, studies with a microscope

1665: Robert Boyle, air is necessary for candles to burn

1666: Giovanni Cassini, sees mars northern ice cap

1666: Robert Boyle, fluid experiments

1666: Isaac Newton, studies spectrum of light

1666: Isaac Newton, begins work on laws of mechanics and gravitation

1667: Jean Picard, observes anomalies in star positions which are
later explained as aberration

1668: John Wallis, conservation of momentum

1668: Isaac Newton, reflecting telescope

1669: Erasmus Bartholin, describes double refraction caused by
polarisation effects of Iceland feldspar

1669: Hennig Brand, element phosphorus

1669: Gottfreid Leibniz, first concepts of action

1670: Robert Boyle, produces hydrogen by reacting metals with acid

1671: Giovanni Cassini, accurate measurement of distance to Mars and
scale of solar system

1671: Giovanni Cassini, finds Iapetus

1672: Giovanni Cassini, finds Rhea

1672: Jean Richer, the period of a pendulum varies with latitude

1672: Isaac Newton, variation of pendulum is due to equatorial bulge

1673: Ignace Pardies, wave explanation for refraction of light

1673: Christiaan Huygens, laws of centripetal force

1674: Robert Hooke, attempt to explain planetary motion as a balance
of centfifugal force and gravitational attraction

1675: Ole Romer, rough estimate of speed of light

1675: Isaac Newton, delivers his theory of light

1676: Giovanni Cassini, Saturn has separated rings which must be
composed of small objects

1676: Olaus Roemer, measured the speed of light by observing
Jupiter's moons

1676: Robert Hooke, law of elasticity and springs

1676: Edme Mariotte, pressure is inversely proportional to volume
(Boyle's law) and height of atmosphere

1678: Robert Hooke, inverse square law of gravity

1678: Christiaan Huygens, writes about wave theory of light

1679: Christiaan Huygens, polarisation of light

1680: Isaac Newton, demonstrates that inverse square law implies
eliptical orbits

1684: Giovanni Cassini, finds Dione and Tethys

1684: Isaac Newton, inverse square law and mass dependence of
gravity

1684: Gottfreid Leibniz, differential calculus

1687: Isaac Newton, publishes laws of motion and gravitation

1687: Isaac Newton, publishes analysis of sound propagation

1688: P. Varignon, addition of forces

1690: Christiaan Huygens, principle of Huygens, secondary waves

1690: John Locke, knowledge comes only from experience and
sensations

1692: Richard Bentley, why do stars not fall together under
gravitation?

**TIMELINE 1700 TO 1799**

1702: Francis Hauksbee, rarified air glows during electrical
discharge

1704: Isaac Newton, publishes corpuscular theory of light and colour

1705: Edmund Halley, tracked comets, predicts a return in 1758

1709: Gabriel Fahrenheit, alcohol thermometer

1710: George Berkeley, idealist philosophy against materialist

1714: Gottfreid Leibniz, energy conservation

1714: Gottfreid Leibniz, rejection of absolute space and time

1714: Gabriel Fahrenheit, mercury thermometer

1718: Edmund Halley, measures proper motion of stars

1720: Edmund Halley, early form of Olbers' paradox

1721: George Berkeley, space exists because of matter in it

1724: Gabriel Fahrenheit, supercooling of water

1727: Stephen Hales, makes oxygen

1728: James Bradley, speed of light and stellar aberration

1729: Stephen Gray, conduction of electricity

1731: Rene Reaumur, alcohol/water thermometer

1733: Charles Du Fay, recognises distinction between positive and
negative electric charge

1735: Antonio de Ulloa, element platinum

1736: Leonhard Euler, differential equations in mechanics

1738: Daniel Bernoulli, kinetic theory of gas

1738: Daniel Bernoulli, hydrodynamics

1739: Georg Brandt, element cobalt

1740: Pierre Bouguer, gravitational anomalies

1742: Anders Celsius, reverse centigrade temperature scale

1743: Jean Christin, Celsius temperature scale

1743: Jean d'Alembert, energy in Newtonian mechanics

1744: Pierre de Maupertuis, principle of least action

1744: Jean d'Alembert, theory of fluid dynamics

1744: Leonhard Euler, Euler-Lagrange equations

1744: Mikhail Lomonosov, heat is a form of motion

1745: von Kleist, van Musschenbroek, Leyden jar for electric charge
storage

1746: Andreas Marggraf, rediscovery of element zinc

1746: Leonhard Euler, wave theory of light refraction and dispersion

1747: d'Alembert, Euler, solution of equations for vibrating string

1748: Mikhail Lomonosov, conservation of mass and energy

1749: Thomas Melvill, early spectrscopy and yellow line of sodium in
salt

1750: Benjamin Franklin, theory of electricity and lightning

1750: John Michell, magnetic induction

1750: John Michell, inverse square law for magnetic fields

1750: Thomas Wright, Milky Way could be due to slab like
distribution of stars

1751: Benjamin Franklin, electricity can magnetise needles

1751: Frederik Cronstedt, element nickel

1752: Jean d'Alembert, viscosity

1754: Joseph Black, discovery of carbon dioxide showing that there
are gases other than air

1755: Immanuel Kant, theory that the universe formed from a spinning
nebula in an infinite hierarchy

1756: William Cullen, evaporation causes cooling

1761: Mikhail Lomonosov, Venus has an atmosphere

1761: Joseph Black, discovery and measurements of latent and
specific heats

1761: John Harrison, portable chronometer

1764: Charles Messier, finds first nebula Dumbell

1765: Leonhard Euler, rigid body motions

1766: Joseph Priestley, inverse square law for electric charge

1766: Henry Cavendish, hydrogen is an element

1771: Luigi Galvani, electricity in animals

1772: Carl Scheele, saw air as two gases one of which encouraged
combustion

1772: Daniel Rutherford, nitrogen

1772: Antoine Lavoisier, conservation of mass in chemical reactions

1772: Joseph Lagrange, theory of Lagrange points

1774: Priestley, Scheele, element oxygen

1774: Nevil Maskelyne, gravitational deflection of plumb line by a
mountain

1774: Carl Scheele, element chlorine

1774: Johann Gahn, element manganese

1775: Alessandro Volta, electrical condenser

1776: Pierre-Simon Laplace, deterministic causality

1777: Antoine Lavoisier, composition of air and burning as a
chemical reaction

1779: Charles Augustin de Coulomb, Coulomb's law of friction

1781: Immanuel Kant, Critique of pure reason

1781: William Herschel, discovery of Uranus

1781: Carl Scheele, element molybdenum in ore

1781: Charles Messier, catalogue of nebulae

1781: Heinrich Olbers, Uranus is a planet, not a comet

1782: Jacob Hjelm, isolation of element molybdenum

1782: Franz von Reichstein, element tellurium in ores

1782: William Herschel, catalog of double stars

1782: William Herschel, sun's motion through space

1783: John Michell, Newtonian black hole

1783: Fausto and Juan José de Elhuyar, element tungsten

1783: Rene Hauy, nature of crystals

1784: Henry Cavendish, water is a compound of oxygen and hydrogen

1784: Pierre Laplace, electrostatic potential

1784: John Goodricke, furst variable star1785: Charles Augustin de Coulomb, electric force proportional to
product of charges and inverse square of distance

1786: Antoine Lavoisier, distinction between elements and compounds

1787: Antoine Lavoisier, system for naming chemicals

1787: Jacques-Alexander Charles, law of gas expansion with
temperature

1788: Joseph Lagrange, Lagrangian mechanics

1788: John Hunter, Diffusion of heat

1782: William Herschel, finds Mimas and Enceladus

1789: Antoine Lavoisier, Conservation of mass in chemical reactions

1789: Martin Klaproth, elements zirconium and uranium in compounds

1790: Definition of metric system in France

1790: Adair Crawford, element strontium in compounds

1791: William Gregor, element titanium in compounds

1794: Johann Gadolin, element yttrium in compounds

1794: Pierre Laplace, analysis of Newtonian black hole

1796: Alessandro Volta, chemical batteries and voltage

1797: Henry Cavendish, measured the gravitational constant with a
torsion balance

1797: Nicholas Vauquelin, element berylium identified in gem stones

1797: Nicholas Vauquelin, element chromium

1798: Benjamin Thompson, heat generated equals work done

1798: M. Klaproth, isolation of element tellurium

1798: Humphry Davy, Transmission of heat through vacuum

1798: Benjamin Rumford, experimental relation between work done and
heat generated

**TIMELINE 1800 TO 1899**

1800: William Herschel, infrared rays from the Sun

1801: Johann Ritter, Ultraviolet rays

1801: Johann von Soldner, predicted Newtonian bending of light by
sun

1801: Giuseppe Piazzi, first asteroid Ceres

1801: Humphry Davy, Electric arc

1801: Andres Manuel del Rio, compounds of element vanadium

1801: Charles Hatchett, element niobium in ores

1802: Heinrich Olbers, second asteroid Pallas

1802: Anders Ekeberg, element tantalum

1802: William Wollaston, dark lines in solar spectrum

1802: William Herschel, double stars are bodies in mutual orbit

1802: Thomas Young, interference and wave description of light

1802: Humphry Davy, electrochemistry

1802: Joseph Gay-Lussac, relation of volume to temperature of gases
at fixed pressure

1803: William Wollaston, elements rhodium and palladium

1803: Smithson Tennant, elements osmium and iridium

1804: John Dalton, Law of partial pressures, Dalton's law

1807: Humphry Davy, isolation of elements sodium and potassium

1808: Humphry Davy, isolation of elements magnesium, strontium,
barium and calcium

1808: Davy, Gay-Lussac and Thenard, isolation of element boron

1808: Joseph Gay-Lussac, Law of gas volumes in chemical reactions

1808: John Dalton, atomic theory of chemical reactions

1808: Etienne Malus, polarization of reflected light

1809: Simeon-Denis Poisson, Poisson brackets in mechanics

1811: Amedeo Avogadro, molecular theory of gases and Avogadro's law

1811: Jean-Baptiste Fourier, harmonic analysis

1811: Bernard Courtois, element iodine

1812: David Brewster, behaviour of polarized light

1814: Joseph von Fraunhofer, spectroscope

1815: William Prout, atomic weights of elements are multiples of
that for hydrogen

1815: Augustin Fresnel, theory of light diffraction

1816: Joseph von Fraunhofer, absorption lines in sun's spectrum

1817: Young and Fresnel, transverse nature of light

1817: Johan Arfvedson, element lithium

1817: Friedrich Strohmeyer, element cadmium

1817: Jöautns Berzelius, element selenium

1818: Augustin Fresnel, ether as absolute rest frame

1819: Dulong and Petit, relation of specific heats to atomic weight
in 12 solid elements

1820: Andre Ampere, force on an electric current in a magnetic field

1820: Hans Christian Oersted, an electric current deflects a
magnetized needle

1820: Biot and Savart, force law between an electric current and a
magnetic field

1821: Thomas Seebeck, thermocouple and thermoelectricity

1821: Joseph von Fraunhofer, diffraction grating

1821: Michael Faraday, plotted the
magnetic field around a conductor

1821: Michael Faraday, first electric motor

1822: Andre Ampere, two wires with electric currents attract

1822: Charles Babbage, a prototype calculating machine

1822: Mary Mantell, first dinosaur fossil

1823: Michael Faraday, liquifies chlorine

1823: John William Herschel, suggests identification of chemical
composition from spectrum

1823: William Sturgeon, electromagnets

1823: Heinrich Olbers, why is the sky dark?

1823: Johann Schweigger, galvanometer

1824: Sadi Carnot, heat transfer goes from hot body to cold body

1824: Jöautns Berzelius , element silicon

1824: Jöautns Berzelius , isolation of element zirconium

1825: Hans Christian Oersted, isolation of element aluminum

1826: Antoine-J. Balard, element bromine

1827: Georg Ohm, electrical resistance and Ohm's law

1827: Robert Brown, Brownian motion

1828: Friedrich Wohler, isolation of element yttrium

1829: Johann Wolfgang, triads of chemical elements

1829: Thomas Graham, gas diffusion law

1829: Jons Berzelius, element thorium

1830: Charles Lyell, proposition that Earth is several million years
old

1830: Nils Sefstrom, rediscovery and naming of vanadium

1831: Michael Faraday, a moving magnet induces an electric current

1831: Michael Faraday, magnetic lines of force

1831: Michael Faraday, the electric dynamo

1831: Michael Faraday, the electric transformer

1833: Michael Faraday, laws of electrolysis

1833: Joseph Henry, self inductance

1834: Emile Clapeyron, entropy

1834: John Scott Russell, observed solitary waves in a canal

1834: William Hamilton, principle of least action and Hamiltonian
mechanics

1834: Heinrich Lenz, Law of electromagnetic forces

1835: Gustav-Gaspard Coriolis, Coriolis force

1838: Bessel, Henderson, Struve, first measurements of distance to a
star by parallax

1839: Karl Mosander Lanthanum

1840: Rive Marcet, anomolous specific heat of diamond

1840: Joule and Helmholtz, electricity is a form of energy

1840: Auguste Comte, suggests that nature and composition of stars
will never be known

1841: Eugene-Melchoir Peligot, isolation of element uranium

1842: Christian Doppler, theory of Doppler Effect for sound and light

1842: Justin von Mayer, conservation of heat and mechanical energy

1843: James Joule, mechanical and electrical equivalent of heat

1843: Howard Aiken, first mechanical programmable calculator

1844: Kark Klaus, element 44, ruthenium

1845: Michael Faraday, rotation of polarized light by magnetism

1845: Christopher Buys-Ballet, confirmation of Doppler effect for
sound using trumpeters on a train

1845: William Parsons: sees first spiral galaxy

1846: Adams, Le Verrier, predicted position of Neptune

1846: Gustav Kirchhoff, Kirchoff's laws of electrical networks

1846: William Thomson (Kelvin), incorrectly estimates Earth to be
100 million years old by heat

1846: Jahanne Galle, Neptune

1846: William Lassell, finds Titan

1847: Hermann von Helmholtz, conservation of energy in Newtonian
mechanics and gravity

1848: William Thomson (Kelvin), absolute temperature scale

1848: James Joule, average velocity of gas molecules from kinetic
theory

1849: Armand Fizeau, first accurate measurement of the velocity of
light in the laboratory using a toothed wheel

1850: Rudolf Clausius, generalized second law of thermodynamics

1850: Jean Foucault, light travels slower in water than in air

1850: Michael Faraday, experiments to find link between gravity and
electromagnetism fail

1851: William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), dynamical theory of heat

1851: William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), absolute zero temperature

1851: Armand Fizeau, velocity of light in moving medium

1851: Franz Neumann, laws of electric-magnetic induction

1851: Jean Foucault, demonstrates rotation of Earth with a pendulum

1852: Jean Foucault, first gyroscope

1852: Joule, Thomson, an expanding gas cools

1853: Anders Angstrom, measured hydrogen spectral lines

1854: Hermann von Helmholtz, heat death of the universe

1854: Bernhard Riemann, possibility of space curvature on small or
large scales

1854: George Airy, estimate of Earth mass from underground gravity

1855: William Parsons, spiral galaxies

1855: James Clerk Maxwell, mathematics of Faraday's lines of force

1857: James Clerk Maxwell, nature of Saturn's rings

1858: Wallace and Darwin, natural selection of species

1858: Balfour Stewart, conjecture equivalent to Kirchoff's law

1859:Richard Carrington, sees first solar flare

1859: Hittorf and Plucker, cathode rays

1859: Bunsen and Kirchhoff, measurement of spectral line frequencies

1859: Urbain Le Verrier, anomalous perihelion shift of Mercury

1860: Gustav Kirchhoff, Kirchoff's Law and black body problem

1860: Maxwell and Waterston, equipartition theorem of statistical
mechanics

1861: von Bunsen, Kirchhoff, elements caesium and rubidium found in
spectra

1861: William Crookes, element thallium found by its spectra

1861: Johann Madler, Olbers's paradox would be resolved if the
universe had a finite age

1862: Anders Angstrom, observed hydrogen in the sun

1863: William Huggins, stellar spectra indicate that stars are made
of same elements as found on Earth

1863: Reich, Richter, element indium from its spectra

1864: John Newlands, chemical law of octaves

1864: James Clerk Maxwell, equations of electromagnetic wave
propagation in the ether

1865: Rudolf Clausius, introduction of the term entropy

1867: James Clerk Maxwell, statistical physics and thermal
equilibrium

1867: Henry Roscoe, isolation of element vanadium

1868: Pierre-Jules Janssen, lines of helium observed in the sun's
spectrum

1868: Norman Lockyer, William Crookes, element helium recognized and named

1868: William Huggins, Doppler shifts of stellar spectra

1869: Dmitri Mendeleyev, periodic table of elements

1871: Dmitri Mendeleyev, prediction of new elements such as
scandium, germanium, technetium, francium and gallium

1871: Ludwig Boltzmann, classical explanation of Dulong-Petit
specific heats

1871: Tyndall and Rayleigh, light scattering and why the sky is
blue.

1872: Ludwig Boltzmann, H-theorem

1873: James Clerk Maxwell, electromagnetic nature of light and
prediction of radio waves

1873: Johannes van der Waals, intermolecular forces in fluids

1874: George Stoney, estimated the unit of charge and named it the
electron

1875: Heinrich Weber, specific heat curves of solids

1875: James Clerk Maxwell, atoms must have a structure

1875: Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, element gallium

1877: Johann Loschmidt, questions validity of second law for time
symmetric dynamics

1877: Ludwig Boltzmann, Boltzmann's probability equation for entropy

1877: Asaph Hall, two moons of Mars

1877: Cailletet and Pictet, liquid oxygen and nitrogen

1878: Josiah Willard Gibbs, thermodynamics of chemistry and phase
changes

1879: Josef Stefan, empirical discovery of total radiation law,
(Stefan's law)

1879: Lars Fredrik Nilson, element scandium

1879: Willaim Crookes, cathode rays may be negatively charged
particles

1879: Albert Michelson, improved measurements of the speed of light

1880: Pierre and Jacques Curie, piezoelectricity

1880: Oliver Heaviside, coaxial cable**
**

**1881: Albert Michelson, light interferometer and absence of ether
drift**

1881: Josiah Willard Gibbs, vector algebra

1883: Ivan Puluy, prior discovery of X-rays

1883: Thomas Edison, thermionic emission

1883: George Fitzgerald, theory of radio transmission

1884: Ludwig Boltzmann, Derivation of Stefan's law for black bodies

**1884: Oliver Heaviside,
differential equation form of Maxwell's equations **

1885: Oliver Heaviside, electomagnetic propogation in cables and
telegraper's equations **
**

1885: Johann Balmer, empirical formula for hydrogen spectral lines

1885: James Dewar, vacuum flask

1886: Henri Moissan, fluorine

1886: Clemens Winkler, element germanium

1887: Heinrich Hertz, transmission, reception and reflection of
radio waves

1887: Michelson and Morley, absence of ether drift

1887: Michelson and Morley, fine structure of hydrogen spectrum

1887: Hertz, Hallwachs, photoelectric effect

1887: Woldemar Voigt, anticipated Lorentz transform to derive
Doppler shift

1889: George Fitzgerald, length contraction

1889: Rolond von Eotvos, torsion balance to test equivalence of
inertial and gravitational mass

1890: Johannes Rydberg, empirical formulae for spectral lines and
Rydberg constant

1892: Hendrick Lorentz, theory that electricity is due to charged
particles

1893: Ernst Mach, influence of all the mass in the universe
determines what is natural motion

1893: Wilhelm Wien, derivation of black body displacement law

1893: Oliver Lodge, ether could not be carried along by matter

1894: Rayleigh and Ramsey, element argon

1894: Heinrich Hertz, radio waves travel at speed of light and can
be refracted and polarized

1894: James Dewar, liquid oxygen

1894: Pierre Curie, why are there no magnetic monopoles?

1895:
Pierre Curie, isolation of helium from uranium
ore

1895: Wilhelm Roentgen, X-rays

1895: Korteweg and de Vries, explanation of solitary waves

1895: Jean-Baptiste Perrin, cathode rays are negative particles

1895: Pierre Curie, loss of magnetism at high temperature, (Curie
point)

1895: Hendrick Lorentz, first form of Lorentz transformation

1895: Hendrick Lorentz, electromagnetic force on a charged particle

1896: Wilhelm Wien, conjectured exponential black body law

1896: Pieter Zeeman, spectral line splitting by magnetic field

1896: Antoine Henri Becquerel, natural radioactivity in uranium ore

1897: Ludwig Boltzmann, time reversal symmetry of electromagnetism

1897: Friedrich Paschen, verification of Wien's black body law at
long wavelengths

1897: Kaufmann, J.J. Thomson, measurement of electron charge to mass
ratio by deflection of cathode rays

1897: Weichert, J.J. Thomson, conjectured existence of light
electron

1898: James Dewar, liquid hydrogen

1898: Guglielmo Marconi, transmission of signals across the English
channel

1898: Pierre and Marie Curie, separation of radioactive elements,
radium and polonium

1898: Ramsey and Travers, neon, krypton, xenon

1898: Joseph Larmor, complete form of Lorentz transformation

1898: Henri Poincare, questions absolute time and simultaniety

1898: Ernest Rutherford, alpha and beta radiation

1899: Joseph John Thomson, measurement of the charge and mass of the
electron

1899: Andre Debierne, element actinium

1899: Max Planck, universal scale of measurement from fundamental
constants

**TIMELINE 1900 TO 1949**

1900: Lord Rayleigh, statistical derivation of short wavelength
black body law

1900: Ernest Rutherford, first determination of a radioactive
half-life

1900: Antoine Henri Becquerel, suggests that beta rays are electrons

1900: Lummer, Pringsheim, Rubens, Kurlbaum, failure of Wien's black
body law at short wavelengths

1900: Max Planck, light quanta in black body radiation, Planck's
black body law and Planck's constant

1900: Paul Villard, gamma rays

1900: Friedrich Dorn, element 86, radon

1900: Pyotr Lebedev, radiation pressure measured

1901: Max Planck, determination of Planck's constant, Boltzmann's
constant, Avogadro's number and the charge on electron

1901: Guglielmo Marconi, Transmission of Morse signals across the
Atlantic

1902: Philipp Lenard, intensity law in photoelectric effect

1902: Rutherford and Soddy, theory of transmutation by radiation and
first use of the term "atomic energy"

1902: Kelvin, Thomson, plum pudding model of the atom

1902: Heaviside and Kennelly, Ionized layer capable of reflecting
radio waves

1903: Ernest Rutherford, alpha particles have a positive charge

1903: Curie and Laborde, radioactive energy released by radium is
large

1903: Johannes Stark, the power of the sun may be due to genesis of
chemical elements

1903: Philipp Lenard, model of atom as two separated opposite
charges1904: Albert Einstein,
energy-frequency relation of light quanta

1904: Hendrik Lorentz, the completed Lorentz transformations

1904: Hantaro Nagaoka, planetary model of the atom

1904: Ambrose Flemming, diode valve and rectifier

1904: Henri Poincare, conjectured light speed as physical limit

1904: Ernest Rutherford, age of Earth by radioactvity dating

1905: Albert Einstein, explains Brownian motion by kinetic theory

1905: Albert Einstein, light-quantum theory for photoelectric law

1905: Albert Einstein, special relativity

1905: Paul Langevin, atomic theory of paramagnetism

1905: Percival Lowell, postulates a ninth planet beyond Neptune

1905: Bragg and Kleeman, alpha-particles have discrete energies

1905: Hermann Nernst, third law of thermodynamics

1905: Albert Einstein, equivalence of mass and energy

1906: Albert Einstein, quantum explanation of specific heat laws for
solids

1906: Joseph Thomson, Thomson scattering of X-ray photons and number
of electrons in an atom

1906: Ernest Rutherford, alpha particles scatter in air

1906: Lee de Forest, triode valve

1907: Albert Einstein, equivalence principle and gravitational
redshift

1907: Urbain and von Welsbach, element 71, lutetium

1908: Hermann Minkowski, geometric unification of space and time

1908: Hans Geiger, Geiger counter for detecting radioactivity

1908: Heike Kammerlingh-Onnes, liquid helium

1908: Geiger, Royds, Rutherford, identify alpha particles as helium
nuclei

1909: Albert Einstein, particle-wave duality of photons

1909: Johannes Stark, momentum of photons

1909: Geiger and Marsden, anomolous scattering of alpha particles on
gold foil

1909: Robert Millikan, measured the charge on the electron

1910: Albert Einstein, why the sky is blue

1910: Matthew Hunter, isolation of element titanium

1910: Theodor Wulf, excess atmospheric radiation

1911: Victor Hess, high altitude radiation from space

1911: Heike Kammerlingh-Onnes, superconductivity

1911: Ernest Rutherford, Infers the nucleus from the alpha
scattering result

1912: Joseph Thomson, mass spectrometry and separation of isotopes

1912: Henrietta Leavitt, period to luminosity relationship for
Cepheid variable stars

1912: Robert Millikan, measurement of Planck's constant

1912: Peter Debye, derivation of specific heat laws to low
temperatures

1912: Charles Wilson, cloud chamber

1912: Max Von Laue, X-rays are explained as electromagnetic
radiation by diffraction

1912: Albert Einstein, curvature of space-time

1912: Vesto Melvin Slipher, observes blue-shift of andromeda galaxy

1912: Gustav Mie, non-linear field theories

1913: Niels Bohr, quantum theory of atomic orbits

1913: Niels Bohr, radioactivity as nuclear property

1913: Jean-Baptiste Perrin, theory of size of atoms and molecules

1913: Fajans and Gohring, element 91, protactinium

1913: Bragg and Bragg, X-ray diffraction and crystal structure

1913: Hans Geiger, relation of atomic number to nuclear charge

1913: Johannes Stark, splitting of hydrogen spectral lines in
electric field

1913: Frederick Soddy, the term "isotope"

1914: James Chadwick, primary beta spectrum is continuous and shows
an energy anomaly

1914: Harry Moseley, used X-rays to confirm the correspondence
between electric charge of nucleus and atomic number

1914: Ejnar Hertzsprung, measured distance to Large Magellanic Cloud
using Cepheid variable stars

1914: Rutherford, da Costa Andrade, gamma rays identified as hard
photons

1915: Albert Einstein, general relativity

1915: David Hilbert, action principle for gravitational field
equations

1915: Albert Einstein, prediction of light bending and explanation
for perihelion shift of Mercury

1916: Robert Millikan, verification of energy law in photoelectric
effect

1916: Albert Einstein, prediction of gravitational waves

1916: Albert Einstein, conservation of energy-momentum in general
relativity

1916: Karl Schwarzschild, singular static solution of gravitational
field equations which describes a minimal black hole

1916: Arnold Sommerfeld, further atomic quantum numbers and fine
structure of spectra, fine structure constant

1917: Harlow Shapley, estimates the diameter of the galaxy as 100000
parsecs

1917: Albert Einstein, introduction of the cosmological constant and
a steady state model of the universe

1917: Vesto Melvin Slipher, observes that most galaxies have
red-shifts

1917: Albert Einstein, theory of stimulated emission and loss of
determinism

1917: Willem de Sitter, describes a model of a static universe with
no matter

1917: Arthur Eddington, gravitational energy is insufficient to
account for the energy output of stars

1917: Rutherford, Marsden, artificial transmutation, hydrogen and
oxygen from nitrogen

1918: Harlow Shapley, measured distance to globular clusters using
Cepheid variable stars

1918: Harlow Shapley, determined the size and shape of our galaxy

1918: Reissner and Nordstrom, solution of Einstein's equations which
describe a charged black hole

1918: Emmy Noether, The mathematical relationships between symmetry
and conservation laws in classical physics

1918: Francis Aston, mass spectrometer

1918: Herman Weyl, gauge theory

1919: Ernest Rutherford, existence of the proton in nucleus

1919: Oliver Lodge, prediction of gravitational lensing

1919: Francis Aston, hydrogen fusion to helium will release a lot of
energy

1919: Crommelin, Eddington, verification of Einstein's prediction of
starlight deflection during an eclipse

1919: Arthur Eddington, predicts the size of red giants using
stellar models

1920: Ernest Rutherford, prediction of neutron

1920: Anderson, Michelson, Pease, size of star Betelgeuse using
stellar interferometry

1920: Harkins, Eddington, fusion of hydrogen could be the energy
source of stars

1920: Shapley and Curtis, The Great Debate over the scale and
structure of the universe

1921: Theodor Kaluza, unification of electromagnetics and gravity by
introducing an extra dimension

1921: Bieler and Chadwick, evidence for a strong nuclear interaction

1921: Stern and Gerlach, measurement of atomic magnetic moments

1921: Charles Bury, electronic structure of elements from their
chemistry

1922: Cornelius Lanczos, transformation of De Sitter universe to an
expanding form

1922: Alexsandr Friedmann, a model of an expanding/oscillating
universe with matter included

1923: Compton and Debye, theory of Compton effect

1923: Arthur Compton, verification of Compton effect confirms photon
as particle

1923: Louis de Broglie, predicts wave nature of particles

1923: Davisson and Kunsman, electron diffraction

1923: Coster and von Hevesy, element 72, hafnium

1923: Herman Weyl, De Sitter universe would predict a linear
relation between distance and red-shift

1924: Edwin Hubble, measured the distance to other galaxies using
Cepheid variables proving that they lie outside our own

1924: Edward Appleton, ionosphere

1924: Satyendra Bose, derivation of Planck's law

1924: Bose and Einstein, statistics of photons and Bose-Einstein
condensate

1924: Albert Einstein, statistical physics of quantum boson
molecular gas

1924: Wolfgang Pauli, explanation of Zeeman effect and two-valuedness
of electron state

1924: Wolfgang Pauli, the exclusion principle

1924: Ludwik Siberstein, claims a redshift law for nebulae

1925: Walter Elsasser, explanation of electron diffraction as wave
property of matter

1925: Vesto Melvin Slipher, red-shifts of galaxies suggest a
distance/velocity relationship

1925: Robert Millikan, rediscovery of "cosmic rays" in upper
atmosphere

1925: Noddack, Tacke, Berg, element 75, rhenium

1925: Werner Heisenberg, transition amplitude theory of quantum
mechanics

1925: Born and Jordan, matrix interpretation of Heisenberg's quantum
mechanics

1925: Paul Dirac, q-number theory of general quantum mechanics

1925: Pascual Jordan, second quantization

1925: Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck, electron spin

1925: Enrico Fermi, statistics of electrons

1926: Gilbert Lewis, first use of the term photon

1926: Oskar Klein, Kaluza-Klein theory

1926: Wolfgang Pauli, derivation of spectrum of hydrogen atom by
matrix methods

1926: Erwin Schroedinger, the particle wave equation

1926: Erwin Schroedinger, derivation of spectrum of hydrogen atom
using the wave equation

1926: Eckart, Pauli, Schroedinger, equivalence of wave equation and
matrix mechanics

1926: Max Born, probability interpretation of wave function

1926: Albert Einstein, "God does not play dice"

1926: Paul Dirac, distinction between bosons and fermions, symmetry
and anti-symmetry of wave function

1926: Dirac, Jordan, canonical transformation theory for quantum
mechanics

1926: Klein, Fock and Gordon, relativistic wave equation for scalar
particles

1926: Ralph Fowler, suggests that white dwarf stars are explained by
the exclusion principle

1926: Born, Heisenberg, Jordan, model of a quantized field

1926: Wolfgang Pauli, momentum and position cannot be known
simultaneously

1926: Werner Heisenberg, the uncertainty principle

1927: Davisson, Germer, Thomson, verification of electron
diffraction by a crystal

1927: Jan Oort, observation of galactic rotation and spiral shape of
our galaxy

1927: Niels Bohr, principle of complementarity

1927: Paul Dirac, quantization of electromagnetic field, bosonic
creation and annihilation operators, virtual particles, zero point
energy

1927: Eugene Wigner, conservation of parity

1927: Friedrich Hund, quantum tunneling

1927: Heitler and London, quantum theory can explain chemical
bonding

1927: Fritz London, electromagnetic gauge is phase of Schroedinger
equation

1927: Georges Lemaitre, models of an expanding universe

1927: Niels Bohr, Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

1928: Condon, Gamow, Gurney, alpha emission is due to quantum
tunneling

1928: Paul Dirac, relativistic equation of the spin-half electron

1928: Willem Keeson, phase transition in liquid Helium

1928: Jordan, Pauli, quantum field theory of free fields

1928: Rolf Wideroe, first prototype high energy accelerator

1928: Heisenberg, Weyl, group representation theory in quantum
mechanics

1929: quartz crystal clock

1929: Ernest Lawrence, cyclotron

1929: Robert van de Graaff, Van de Graaff generator

1929: Heisenberg, Pauli, interacting quantum field theory and
divergences

1929: J. Robert Oppenheimer, divergence of electron self-energy

1929: Paul Dirac, electron sea and hole theory

1929: Edwin Hubble, first measurement of Hubble's constant leading
to the conclusion that the Universe is expanding

1929: Bothe, Kolhorster, cosmic rays are charged particles

1930: Clyde Tombaugh, finds Pluto

1930: Becker, Bothe, observed neutral rays later identified as
neutrons

1930: Paul Dirac, systematic canonical quantization

1930: Arthur Eddington, Einstein's static universe is unstable

1930: Hartree and Fock, multi-particle quantum mechanics

1931: Dirac, Oppenheimer, Weyl, prediction of anti-matter

1931: Albert Einstein, discard cosmological constant, oscillating
cosmology

1931: Carl Jansky, radio astronomy

1931: Georges Lemaitre, the primeval atom as origin of the universe

1931: Isidor Rabi, principle of population inversion

1931: Wolfgang Pauli, neutrino as explanation for missing energy and
spin in weak nuclear decay

1931: Eugene Wigner, symmetry in quantum mechanics

1931: Paul Dirac, magnetic monopoles can explain quantum of charge

1932: Raman and Bhagavantam, verification that photon is spin one

1932: Einstein, De Sitter, flat expanding cosmology

1932: James Chadwick, identified the neutron

1932: Knoll and Ruska, electron microscope

1932: Carl Anderson, positron from cosmic rays

1932: Cockroft and Walton, linear proton accelerators to 700 keV and
verification of mass/energy equivalence

1932: Karl Jansky, first radio astronomy

1932: Dmitri Iwanenko, neutron as a constituent of nucleus

1932: Richard Tolman, thermodynamics of oscillating cyclic universe

1932: Vladimir Fock, Fock space

1932: Urey, Brickwedde, Murphy, Washburn, deuterium

1932: Werner Heisenberg, nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons

1932: Lev Davidovich Landau, proposed existence of neutron stars

1933: Paul Ehrenfest, theory of second order phase transitions

1933: Blackett and Occhialini, electron-positron creation and
annihilation

1933: Esterman, Frisch and Stern, measurement of proton magnetic
moment

1933: Baade and Zwicky, collapse of a white dwarf may set off a
supernova and leave a neutron star

1933: Fritz Zwicky, dark matter in galactic clusters

1933: Arthur Milne, cosmological principle of large scale
homogeneity

1933: Harlow Shapley, observation of structure in galaxy
distribution

1934: Pavel Cherenkov, Cherenkov radiation

1934: Chadwick and Goldhaber, precise measurement of neutron mass

1934: Chadwick and Goldhaber, measurement of nuclear force

1934: Francis Perrin, neutrino is massless

1934: Grote Reber, discrete radio source in Cygnus

1934: Joliot and Curie-Joliot, induced radioactivity

1934: Enrico Fermi, Fermi theory of weak interaction and beta decay

1934: Esterman and Stern, magnetic moment of neutron

1934: Fermi and Hahn, fission observed

1934: Paul Dirac, polarisation of the vacuum and more divergence in
QED

1935: Yukawa, Stueckelberg, theory of strong nuclear force and the
pi-meson

1935: J. Robert Oppenheimer, spin statistics

1935: Enrico Fermi, hypothesis of transuranic elements

1935: Robertson, Walker, most general homogenious isotropic universe

1935: Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, EPR Paradox of non-locality in
quantum mechanics

1935: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, calculation of mass limit for
stellar collapse of a white dwarf star

1935: Erwin Schroedinger, quantum cat paradox

1935: Robert Watson-Watt, radar

1936: Niels Bohr, compound nucleus

1936: Anderson and Neddermeyer, muon in cosmic rays

1936: Leon Brillouin, theory of wave guides

1936: Breit and Coll, isotopic spin

1936: Alan Turing, computability

1937: Pyotr Kapitza, superfluidity of helium II

1937: Perrier and Segre, element 37, technetium, first element made
artificially

1937: Majorana, symmetric theory of electron and positron

1937: Julian Schwinger, neutron spin is half

1937: Blau, Wambacher, photographic emulsion as particle detector

1937: Bloch and Nordsieck, operator normal ordering

1937: John Wheeler, S-matrix theory

1938: Oppenheimer and Serber, there is an upper mass limit for
stability of neutron stars

1938: Bethe, Critchfield, von Weizsacker, stars are powered by
nuclear fusion CN-cycle

1938: Isador Rabi, magnetic resonance

1938: Hahn, Strassman, fission induced with neutrons

1938: Oskar Klein, new field equations from higher dimensional
Kaluza-Klein theory

1938: Fritz Zwicky, clusters of galaxies

1938: Ernest Stueckelberg, suggests baryon number conservation

1938: Hendrick Kramers, mass renormalization

1938: Frisch and Meitner, theory of uranium fission

1939: Joliot and Curie-Joliot, Szilard, theory of nuclear chain
reaction

1939: Oppenheimer and Snyder, a collapsing neutron star will form a
black hole.

1939: Bohr, Wheeler, Khariton, Zel'dovich, theory of U235
fission and chain reaction.

1939: Bloch and Alvarez, measurement of the neutron magnetic moment

1939: Rossi, Van Norman, Hilbery, Muon decay

1939: Teller, Szilard, Einstein, warning letter to Roosevelt

1939: Peierls and Frisch, critical mass and theory of A-Bomb

1939: Marguerite Perey, element 87, francium

1940: MacMillan, Abelson, element 93, neptunium, first transuranian
elements

1940: Corson, MacKenzie, Segre, element 85, astatine synthesized

1941: MacMillan, Kennedy, Seaborg, Wahl, element 94, plutonium,
second transuranian elements

1941: Lev Davidovich Landau, theory of superfluids

1941: Rossi and Hall, nuon decay used to verify relativistic time
dilation

1941: Mckellar and Adams, Cosmic cyanogen observed to be at
temperature of CBR, but significance not recognized

1941: "Manhatten Project" is founded to develop atomic bomb

1942: Enrico Fermi, the first self sustaining fission reaction

1942: Grote Reber, radio map of the sky

1943: Ernest Stueckelberg, renormalization of QED

1943: Sakata, Inoue, theory of pion decay to muons

1944: Lars Onsager, general theory of phase transitions

1944: Seaborg, James, Morgan, Ghiorso, Thompson, elements 95;
americium, 96; curium

1944: Leprince-Ringuet and Lheritier, the K+ found in cosmic rays

1944:Gerard Kuiper, atmosphere on Yitan1945: Robert Oppenheimer et al, atomic bomb

1945: first electronic computer ENIAC

1946: James Hey Discovery of radio source Cygnus A

1946: George Gamow Cold big bang model

1946: Bloch and Purcell nuclear magnetic resonance

1947: Claude Shannon, information
theory

1947: Conversi, Pancini, Piccioni, indication that the muon is not
the mediator of the strong force

1947: Hartmut Kallman, scintillation counter

1947: Denis Gabor, theory of holograms

1947: Powell, Occhialini, negative pion found

1947: Willis Lamb, fine structure of hydrogen spectrum, the Lamb
shift

1947: Hans Bethe, renormalization of Lamb shift calculation

1947: Kusch and Folley, measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment
of the electron

1947: Hartland Snyder, quantised space-time

1948: Tomonaga, Schwinger, Feynman, renormalization of QED

1948: Alpher, Bethe and Gamow, explain nucleosynthesis in hot big
bang

1948: Alpher and Herman, prediction of cosmic background radiation

1948: Bondi, Gold, Hoyle, steady state theory of the universe

1948: Goldhaber and Goldhaber, experimental proof that beta
particles are electrons

1948: Richard Feynman, path integral approach to quantum theory

1948: Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley, semi-conductors and transistors

1948: Snell and Miller, decay of the neutron

1948: Freeman Dyson, Equivalence of Feynman and Schwinger-Tomonaga
QED

1948: Hendrik Casimir, Theory of Casimir force

1949: Leighton, Anderson, Seriff, muon is spin half

1949: Seaborg, Ghiorso, Thompson, element 97, berkelium

1949: Haxel, Jensen, Mayer, Suess, nuclear shell model

1949: Fred Hoyle, first use of the term "big bang"

**TIMELINE 1950 TO 2000**

**1950: Paul Dirac, first suggestion of
string theory**

1950: Seaborg, Ghiorso, Street, Thompson, element 98, californium

1950: Jan Oort, theory of comet origins

1950: Bjorklund, Crandall, Moyer, York, neutral pion

1950: Albert Einstein, Einstein's failed unified theory

1951: Smith and Baade, identify a radio galaxy

1951: Petermann, Stueckelberg, renormalization group

1952: Courant, Livingston, Snyder, Strong focusing principle for
particle accelerators

1952: Alvarez, Glaser, bubble chamber

1952: Seaborg et al, elements 99; einsteinium, 100; fermium

1952: Walter Baade, resolves confusion over two different types of
Cepheid variable stars

1952: Edward Teller et al, hydrogen bomb

1952: Joseph Weber, described the principle of the maser

1953: Gell-Mann and Nishijima, strangeness

1953: Gerard de Vaucouleurs, galaxy superclusters and large scale
inhomogenieties

1953: Charles Townes, maser

1953: Alpher, Herman, Follin, first recognition of the horizon
problem in cosmology

1954: Yang and Mills, non-abelian gauge theory

1954: Low and Gell-Mann, renormalization group revisited

1955: caesium atomic clock

1955: Martin Ryle, radio telescope interferometry

1955: John Wheeler, describes the space-time foam at the Planck
scale

1955: Ilya Prigogine, thermodynamics of irreversible processes

1955: Carl von Weizsacker, multiple quantization and ur-theory

1955: Seaborg et al, element 101, mendelevium

1955: Chamberlain, Segre and Wiegand, anti-proton

1956: Reines and Cowan, neutrino detection

1956: Cork, Lambertson, Piccioni, Wenzel, evidence for anti-neutron

1956: Block, Lee and Yang, weak interaction could violate parity

1956: Reines and Cowan, anti-neutrino detection

1956: Erwin Muller, field ion microscope and first images of
individual atoms

1956: Cook, Lambertson, Piconi, Wentzel, anti-neutron

1968: Abdus Salam, 2-component neutrino

1957: Burbidge, Burbidge, Hoyle, Fowler, formation of light elements
in stars

1957: Friedman, Lederman, Telegdi, Wu, parity violation in weak
decays

1957: Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer, BCS theory of superconductivity

1957: nobelium

1957: Hugh Everett, many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics

1957: Feynman, Gell-Mann, Marshak, Sudarshan, V-A theory of weak
interactions

1957: John Wheeler, pregeometry and space-time foam

1958: Townes and Schawlow, theory of laser

1958: Martin Ryle, evidence for evolution of distant cosmological
radio sources

1958: Seaborg et al, element 102, nobelium

1958: Gary Feinberg, predicts that muon neutrino is distinct from
electron neutrino

1958: David Finkelstein, resolves the nature of the black hole event
horizon

1959: MIT, radar echo from Venus

1959: Ramsey, Kleppner, Goldenberg, hydrogen maser atomic clock

1959: Tulio Regge, theory of Regge poles

1960: Theodore Maiman, ruby laser

1960: Martin Kruskal, new coordinates to study Schwarzschild black
hole

1960: Eugene Wigner, the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics
in natural science

1960: Pound and Rebka, measurement of gravitational red-shift

1960: Matthews and Sandage, optical identification of a quasar

1961: Sheldon Glashow, introduces neutral intermediate boson of
electro-weak interactions

1961: Jeoffrey Goldstone, theory of mass-less particles in
spontaneous symmetry breaking (Goldstone boson)

1961: Gell-Mann and Ne'eman, the eightfold way, octet symmetry
of hadrons

1961: Robert Dicke, weak anthropic principle

1961: Robert Hofstadter, necleons have an internal structure

1961: Ghiorso, Sikkeland, Larsh, Latimer, element 103, lawrencium

1961: Edward Ohm, prior detection of CMBR, but not identified

1961: Edward Lorenz, chaos theory

1961: Yuri Gagarin, first man in space

1961: Geoffrey Chew, nuclear democracy and the bootstrap model

1961: Tulio Regge, simplicial lattice general relativity

1962: Gell-Mann and Ne'eman, prediction of Omega minus particle

1962: Leith and Upatnieks, first hologram

1962: Giacconi, Gursky, Paolini, Rossi, detection of cosmic X-rays

1962: Brian Josephson, theory of Jesephson effect

1962: Lederman, Steinberger, Schwartz, evidence for more than one
type of neutrino

1962: Hogarth, proposes relation between cosmological and
thermodynamic arrows of time

1962: Thomas Gold, time-symmetric universe

1962: Benoit Mandelbrot, fractal images

1963: Samios et al, Baryon Omega minus found

1963: Philip Anderson, gauge theories can evade Goldstone theorem

1963: Roy Kerr, solution for a rotating black hole

1963: Schmidt, Greensite, Sandage, quasars are distant

1963: Nicola Cabibbo, weak mixing angle

1964: Brout, Englert, Higgs, Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking

1964: Hoyle, Taylor, Zeldovich, big bang nucleosynthesis of helium

1964: Steven Weinberg, baryon number is probably not conserved

1964: Christenson, Cronin, Fitch, Turlay, CP violation in weak
interactions

1964: Gell-Mann, Zweig, quark theory of hadrons

1964: Murray Gell-Mann, current algebra

1964: Bjorken and Glashow, prediciton of quark flavour symmetry and
charm

1964: Roger Penrose, black holes must contain singularities

1964: Ginzburg, Doroshkevich, Novikov, Zel'dovich, black holes have
no hair

1964: Salpeter and Zel'dovich, black holes power quasars and radio
galaxies

1964: John Bell, a quantum inequality which limits the possibilities
for local hidden variable theories

1964: John Wheeler, foundations of canonical formulism for gravity

1964: Soviets, element 104, rutherfordium

1964: Salam, Ward, electro-weak unification

1965: Thomas Kibble, Higgs mechanism for Yang-Mills theory

1965: Greenberg, Han, Nambu, quark colour symmetry to explain
statistics of quark model

1965: Zabusky and Kruskal, numerical studies of solitons

1965: Penzias and Wilson, detection of the cosmic background
radiation

1965: Dicke, Peebles, Roll, Wilkinson, identification of cosmic
background radiation

1965: Rees and Sciama, quasars were more numerable in the past

1966: X-ray source Cygnus X-1 discovered

1967: Raymonf Davis, neutrino detector

1967: Jocelyn Bell, Thomas Gold, pulsars

1967: Steven Weinberg, electro-weak unification

1967: Irwin Shapiro, radar measurement of relativistic time delays to
Mercury

1967: John Wheeler, introduced the term "black hole"

1967: Andrei Sakharov, three criteria for cosmological abundance of
matter over anti-matter

1967: soviets, element 105, dubnium

1968: Joseph Weber, first attempt at a gravitational wave detector

1968: Brandon Carter, strong anthropic principle

1968: Gabriele Veneziano, dual resonance model for strong
interaction, beginning of string theory

1968: James Bjorken, theory of scaling behavior in deep inelastic
scattering

1968: Richard Feynman, scaling and parton model of nucleons

1969: Kendall, Friedman, Taylor, deep inelastic scattering
experiments find structure inside protons.

1969: Ellis, Hawking and Penrose, singularity theorems for the big
bang

1969: Roger Penrose, conjectures that singularities are hidden by
cosmic censorship

1969: Donald Lynden-Bell, black hole at the centre of galactic
nuclei

1969: Raymond Davis, solar neutrino detector

1969: Charles Misner, cosmological horizon problem revisited

1969: Robert Dicke, cosmological flatness problem

1969: Neil Armstrong, first man on the moon

1969: first attempts to verify solar deflection of radio waves from
quasars

1969: David Finkelstein, space-time code

1970: Claude Lovelace, Veneziano amplitude has special properties in
26 dimensions

1970: Nambu, Nielsen, Susskind, realization that the dual resonance
model is string theory

1970: Goto, Hara, Nambu, action for bosonic string as area of world
sheet

1970: Simon Van der Meer, stochastic cooling for particle beams

1970: Glashow, Iliopoulos, Maiani, GIM mechanism and prediction of
charm quark

1970: Stephen Hawking, the surface area of a black hole event
horizon always increases

1971: Kenneth Wilson, the operator product expansion and the
renormalization group for the strong force

1971: Dimopolous, Fayet, Gol'fand, Lichtman Supersymmetry

1971: Ramond, Neveu, Schwarz, string theory of bosons and fermions
with critical dimension 10

1971: 't Hooft, Veltman, Lee, renormalization of elctro-weak model

1971: Roger Penrose, spin networks

1971: Bolton, Murdin, Webster Cygnus X-1 identified as black hole
candidate

1972: Jacob Bekenstein, black hole entropy

1972: Fritsch, Gell-Mann, Bardeen, quantum chromodynamics

1972: Kirzhnits, Linde, electro-weak phase transition

1972: Roger Penrose, twistors

1972: Salam, Pati, unification and proton decay

1973: Wess and Zumino, space-time supersymmetry

1973: Ostriker and Peebles, dark matter in galaxies

1973: CERN, Evidence of weak neutral currents

1973: 't Hooft, Gross, Politzer, Wilczek, Coleman, theory of
asymptotic freedom in non-abelian gauge theories

1973: Klebesadel, Strong, Olson, gamma ray bursts are cosmic

1973: Edward Tyron, the universe as a quantum fluctuation

1974: Yoneya, Scherk, Schwarz interpretation of string theory as a
theory of gravity

1974: Ting and Richter, found J/psi, charmed quark

1974: Kenneth Wilson, lattice gauge theory

1974: Taylor and Hulse, binary pulsar and relativistic effects

1974: Kobayashi and Maskawa, CKM mixing matrix; CP violation in weak
interaction requires three generations

1974: Georgi and Glashow, Grand Unified Theory and
prediction of proton decay

1974: Georgi, Weinberg, Quinn, convergence of coupling constants at
GUT scale

1974: 't Hooft, Okun, Polyakov, heavy magnetic monopoles exist in
GUTs.

1974: Stephen Hawking, black hole
radiation and thermodynamics

1974: Soviets and Americans, element 106, seaborgium

1975: Martin Perl, tau lepton

1975: Gail Hanson, quark jets

1975: Chincarini and Rood, lumpiness in galaxy distributions

1975: Unruh and Davies, acceleration radiation effect

1975: Mitchell Feigenbaum, universality in chaotic non-linear
systems

1975: Belavin, Polyakov, Schwartz, Tyupkin, instantons in Yang-Mills
theory

1976: Scherk, Gliozzi, Olive, supersymmetric string theory

1976: Deser, Freedman, Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ferrara, Zumino, supergravity

1976: Levine and Vessot, precision test of gravitational time
dilation on rocket

1976: Gerard 't Hooft, the instantons solution of the U(1) anomaly

1976: Soviets element 107, bohrium

1977: James Elliot, rings of Uranus

1977: Olive and Montenen, conjecture of elecro-magnetic duality

1977: Fermilab, bottom quark

1977: Klaus von Klitzing, quantum Hall effect

1977: Tifft, Gregory, Joeveer, Einasto, Thompson, clusters chains
and voids in galaxy distributions

1977: Berkley, dipole anisotropy on cosmic background radiation

1977: Leon Lederman, upsilon, bottom quark

1977: Gunn, Schramm, Steigman, cosmological constraints imply that
there are only three light neutrinos

1978: Charon, moon of Pluto

1978: Taylor and Hulse, evidence for gravitational radiation of
binary pulsar

1978: Cremmer, Julia, Nahm, Scherk, 11-dimensional super-gravity

1978: Prescott, Taylor, elctro-weak effect on electron polarization

1979: Voyager, rings of Jupiter

1979: John Preskill, cosmological monopole problem

1979: Walsh, Carswell, Weymann, quasar doubled by gravitational
lensing

1979: DESY, evidence for gluons in hadron jets

1979: Alexei Starobinsky, inflationary universe

1980: Frederick Reines, evidence of neutrino oscillations

1980: DESY, measurement of gluon spin

1980: Alan Guth, inflationary early universe

1981: Witten, Schoen, Yau, positive energy theorem in general
relativity

1981: Green and Schwarz, Type I superstring theory

1981: Binnig, Rohrer, scanning tunneling electron microscope

1981: Witten and Alvarez-Gaume, difficulty of getting standard model
from 11-D super-gravity because of chiral modes

1981: Alexander Polyakov Path, integral quantization of strings,
conformal symmetry and critical dimension

1981: Linde, Albrecht, Steinhardt, new inflationary universe

1982: Green and Schwarz, Type II superstring theory

1982: Alain Aspect, an experiment to confirm non-local aspects of
quantum theory

1982: Darnstadt, element 109, meitnerium

1982: limits on proton lifetime rule out many Grand Unified Theories

1983: Carlo Rubbia et al, W and Z bosons at CERN

1983: Andrei Linde, chaotic inflationary universe

1984: Plate tectonics proved by measurement; 3.6 cm per year between
Europe and North America

1984: Green and Schwarz, anomaly cancellations in superstring theory

1984: Darnstadt element 108, hassium

1985: Gross, Harvey, Martinec, Rohm, heterotic string theory

1985: David Deutsch, theory of quantum computing

1986: Bednorz and Mueller, high temperature superconductivity

1986: Abhay Ashtekar, new variables for canonical quantum gravity

1986: Geller, Huchra, Lapparent, bubble structure of galaxy
distributions

1987: supernova 1987a visible, neutrinos detected

1987: Masatoshi Koshibas, detection of neutrinos from a supernova

1988: Atiyah, Witten, topological quantum field theories

1988: Smolin and Rovelli, loop representation of quantum gravity

1989: SLAC, evidence that number of light neutrinos is 3 from Z
width

1989: Tim Berners-Lee, The World Wide Web

1989: Bennett and Brassard, first quantum computer

1990: John Mather, black body spectrum of cosmic background
radiation from COBE

1991: CERN, confirmation that number of light neutrinos is 3

1991: Connes, Lott, particle models from non-commutative geometry

1991: BATSE, gamma ray burst distribution is isotropic

1991: Wolzczan, Frail, exoplanets discovered

1992: Kuiper Belt objects discovered

1992: Mather and Smoot, angular fluctuations in cosmic background
radiation with COBE

1993: Aspinwall, Morrison, Greene, topology change in string theory

1994: Philip Gibbs, event-symmetric space-time

1994: Fermilab, top quark

1994: 't Hooft, Susskind Holographic principle

1994: Seiberg and Witten, electro-magnetic duality in supersymmetric
gauge theory

1994: Hubble Space Telescope, evidence for black hole at the centre
of galaxy M87

1994: Peter Shor, factorization algorithm for a quantum computer

1994: Hull, Townsend, unity of string dualities

1994: Darnstadt, element 110

1995: Witten and Townsend, M-Theory

1995: Joseph Polchinski, D-Branes

1995: Cornell, Wieman, Anderson Bose-Einstein condensate of atomic
gas

1995: CERN, Creation of Anti-hydrogen atoms

1995: Mayor and Queloz, first extra-solar planet orbiting an
ordinary star

1995: Darnstadt, element 111

1996: Strominger, Vafa, D-branes and black-holes

1996: Cumrun Vafa, F-theory

1996: Steven Lamoreaux, measurement of Casimir force

1996: Darnstadt, element 112

1996: Banks, Fischler, Shenker, Susskind, M-theory as a matrix model

1997: BepoSAX, location of gamma ray bursts demonstrates that they
are extragalactic

1997: Juan Maldacena, AdS/CFT duality

1997: SLAC, photon-photon scattering produces electron-positron
pairs

1998: Perlmutter, Garnavich et al, supernovae observations suggest
that the expansion of the universe is accelerating

1998: Super-Kamiokande, neutrino oscillation demonstrated

1998: CERN, Fermilab, time reversal assymetry observed for K meson
decay

2000: Fermilab, tau neutrino observed

2012: CERN LHC Higgs boson discovered